BULGARIA - GREECE, BG2004/016-782-01.02.01-12 05







This document was drawn out with the financial assistance of the European Union. The entire responsibility for the contents of the document shall be borne by the authors and in no circumstances it may not be accepted that this document expresses the official standpoint of the European Union.


In many countries where special attention is paid to good food and beverages (such as France and Italy for instance) the waiters professions is well respected. Unfortunately it is not the same case everywhere. Due to the even higher expectations of guests and visitors the requirements to the housekeeping and operational staff increased considerably. The good attendance assumes not only excellent professional skills, but friendly attitude to the others as well. This includes individual qualities such as affability, honesty, language proficiency and before all the ability to be sociable and communicative with people. Good attendance and servicing, therefore, is related to the waiters personality and how he or she is noticed by both the guest and the catering establishments manager. Thus: that who makes a personal commitment shall succeed.

Cuisine is the heart of every establishment, where guests are to be accepted. On one hand it determines the establishments good reputation, and on the other cuisine has crucial significance for the business economical success. In this regard it is necessary to pay special attention to the kitchen organization and the members of the kitchen staff, as well as to the kitchen equipment.


Quality is the first decisive factor for tourist activity development, which creates additional cost in local economy. A frame of common policy should be achieved, which should harmonize the operational performance of particular plans, because the process of quality increase is continuous and interrelated and requires the creation of an overall frame for tourism development, and not support of support of undertakings and tourist regions. Particularly: education, necessity of investments, infrastructural modernization, preservation of the environment, tourist product profiling, and not just financial support to Small and Middle Enterprises, but also consultancy in order to enable the acquiring of the quality increase approach.

As proof of the creation of the overall frame of the tourism steady development are the requirements which should determine the services and the tourist product quality. Organized tourist trips take the major place, i.e. the requirements to the regional tourist information centres operation. There are several requirements and responsibilities.

1. Information is the first one. Detailed information which should be prepared and provided to the agents, as they have direct contact and offer a product, drawn out by the Tour Operator, for and on behalf of the Tour Operator.

2. Warranties for the services offered to the customer, constitute the second one

3. Next comes the security according to the European Directive 90/314/ a Regulation on the obligatory insurance covering the tour operators responsibility was adopted. In this reference the tour operator (TO) should make the above insurance to guarantee the customers rights in the cases when he is not in position to pay off with his contractors. When drafting regulations the foundation of a steady development were laid down, in order to constitute the criteria of a frame, intended to be a standard of the requirements in our profession, and in order to maintain the professional level in this area.

Information Warranties Security Staff certification and qualification

4. The staff certification and qualification requirements also rose

The level of staff qualification determines the rendering of qualitative services, which is the main factor for the satisfaction of guests the good image of the destination, and the tour operator is the basic connection between the customers demand and the tourist product supply, subject to criticism

Customers demand

Tourist product supply

Therefore in the process of services rendering quality is of major importance particularly in the relation CUSTOMER SALES AGENT

The importance of services quality should, therefore, be analyzed, where we shall focus on the following topics:

- More detailed knowledge of the customers needs is required. Course in Psychology of the Products Sales should be organized for the agents, where the customers behaviour and its:

  • Needs, desires, and expectations;
  • Education and language training,
    • shall be considered.

      -         Education and language training. Staff should be qualified in a more result-oriented aspect, according to the activity they implement where constant improvement and the maintenance of a level, which conforms to international standards, should be the major concern.

      -         Interrelation between TO and TA

      -         Responsibility upon additional risk /real and implied/. Rising the security standards.

      -         Realized necessity of quality, ensured by the tour operator, which requires individual attitude to the customer.

      -         All these features related to the quality of offering are of huge importance as the quality of services reflects to a great extent on the clients impression, which in turn depends on the degree of satisfaction, where the experience corresponds to the expectations.



      Does it correspond to


      Quality should not always be related to luxury; what is offered should be accessible to all tourists according to their possibilities and desires, thus including for those who have special requirements as the tourist product should be distinguished as resulting from the destination and the process of entire tourists experience in order to achieve the correlation quality : price /value for the money/.

      Rising the quality levels, provides for the steady development of tourism. Thus an overall destination management policy is achieved, which comprises the following:

    • Provision of a good social policy
    • Regional development
    • Cultural and natural resources management
    • Strengthening of the nations identity.
      • To achieve parallel success in these so different areas, a global approach is required, which should be aimed towards tourists satisfaction and should be  based on the steady development principles. For that particular reason an Integrated Quality Management should be introduced. It is a comparatively new approach, which should be accorded with the economical, social and natural factors.

        The integrated management policy is a concern of everyone who takes part in the chain of services.

        Six criteria have been differentiated, which establish dynamical partnership:

      • Strong and well-structured management which should be able to provide resources /both financial and human/, autonomy, responsibility and support on behalf of the public, the private sector and the local population.
      • A uniform approach of absolute interrelation and circle between all units, local, regional, national, international, should be implemented from creating the plan to the introduction management, in order to achieve dependence on standards, criteria, and approaches.
      • To work with a common vision, to carry out consultancy of agencies TO and TA, of the local population and to establish a high-grade internal system of information spreading.
      • To achieve balance in the positive influence of the tourist income, having positive result, significant to the entire economy, to the professionals in the branch, to the local economy, and to customers.
      • To create permanent policy and coordination in the field of various services and activities, in order to achieve quality of the tourists experience effect.
      • To provide for stimuli which encourage individual initiatives to improve quality.
        • Which are the basic partners in Integrated Quality Management and which is the interrelation between them

          1. The strategic plan has to: Identify partners at a national and international level

        • Representatives of political and administrative authorities at all levels /local, regional, national/.
        • Professionals in the branch, in the private and state sector (public tourist institutions, branch associations, owners and directors of tourist undertakings), other non-governmental organizations, local population.
        • Establishment of structures with coordinated activities, consultancy and information from various partners, workgroups, investigations, monitoring methods.
        • Combining Bulgarian and cross-border partners efforts  when organizing combined tours, with the purpose of achieving global effect, considerably bigger, than that of their individual programs.
          • Notwithstanding what the integrated management policy is intended for, i.e. sea, mountain, rural, echo, cultural, religious, hobby, extreme, medical, r whatever specialized tourism, it should contain:

            - Vision Strategic plan Goals Analysis of present conditions Investigation of resources Staff education key element for success, as it provides quality in the process of communication with tourists, aimed towards satisfaction of guests, treated no only as a common group, but as individuals.

          • Possibilities of staff motivation by improving working conditions and increasing their remuneration;
          • Advertisement professional in this branch should be convinced that a professionally made commercial of the offered product may practically ensure 50% of their sales. In terms of advertisement the image of the offered destination should be created in customers minds.
          • New information technologies and communications are also an extremely significant component of quality in our industry, as they provide a systematic database and dynamic functionality, and the possibility of a uniform interactive tourist information system.
            • In reference with the dynamic development of the world tendencies and the requirements related to the customers demands, we may summarize the new up-to-date marketing criteria:

              Customers dont want to be shut in a particular category;

              Customers become more and more critical;

              Nowadays demands tend to more flexible holidays, which enable to a greater extent the customer to realize his own individual initiatives, in a way that he could make himself the components of the tourist package.

              Uniqueness of the offered tourist product

              Necessity of authenticity of destinations

               Destinations management may be pointed out as one of the most significant measuring indices in the process of quality improvement



              The persons, who take direct part in the various stages of the entire process of serving guests in catering establishment, form the so called operating staff. These are the trading floor responsible (TFR), the waiter, the bartender, the errand boy, the cashier, the cloakroom attendant, the doorman, the cleaner, the hodman. The category of the administrative-managing staff comprises of the manager, the deputy manager. Depending on the type, capacity, category and the organization of activity in the catering establishments there are also: accounting staff, kitchen (manufacturing) staff; non-manual staff.

              The staff has an exceptional importance for the quality and the effectiveness of the entire activity in restaurant management. The companys success depends on the: commitment of the staff, motivation for work, correct appraisal of their work, relevant remuneration for their labour both with respect to quantity and to quality. The quality of catering and the customers satisfaction depend to a greatest extent on the human factor. (Y.Gabriel,1988). The requirements to the staff are set forth in the job description, which the respective establishment draws out and uses. The prestigious hotel and restaurant chains, or separate establishments have standards of their own, where the staff standard has a particular place. Particular principles, characteristics and requirements to the various requirements to the particular staff categories functions, rights, obligations, responsibilities, selection, attestation, and development have been formulated. The human factor becomes more and more dominant in achieving the basic goals of restaurant management. The concepts of staff management are developing in Bulgaria as well. During the last few years the human resources management has been much discussed of on a larger scale. More and more attention is paid to the staff policy in restaurant management, in order to achieve higher quality of the services offered and effectiveness of the activity.

              Manager. He is the direct head of the establishment, he directs and is responsible for the entire production and trading activity. His major task is to provide effectiveness in the catering establishments activity at a high quality of services, relevant to the sites category.

              The manager participates in the establishments production activity management, ensuring regular and timely provisioning. The manager supervises the proper storage of the raw materials and the other goods. He or she takes part in the drawing out of the production program, and controls its qualitative implementation. The Manager applies the new contemporary scientific requirements in the overall technological process. He controls and provides correct and complete use of machines and equipment, and observes for their good working condition. It is the managers concern to incorporate new equipment and to mechanize the labour consuming processes. He controls and ensures the proper keeping of the packing and the stock of the establishment. The entire activity of the manager is accomplished together with the kitchen production head.

              The Manager takes part in the management of the trading activity in the catering establishment by organizing the most suitable attendance in the trading floor. He provides the necessary kitchen utensils and other relevant stock in order to maintain the trading floor in such a manner as to comply with the category of the outlet. The manager selects qualified and well trained operational staff, and draws out its working schedule. The manager supervises the level of serving and service rendering. He investigates the customers demand; and introduces new, progressive forms of serving. He looks for opportunities and implements various activities to increase the attendance and effectiveness of the trading floors.  He receives and off, and in certain cases takes direct part in serving official guests or delegations.


              Deputy manager (shift manager).  The deputy-manager directs the establishment when the manager is absent. He is particularly involved in the trading-floor operation. He manages and supervises the entire servicing organization. The deputy manager organizes the preparation of the trading floor, instructs and distributes the work of the waiters. He controls the appearance and their behaviour at work, and the level of staff serving, as well as the hygiene in the trading floor and at the entrance. He receives the guests and sends them off. The deputy manager assists the waiters, if necessary, and directly participates in serving the guests. He collects the orders for preliminary reservation of seats in the hall of a single r of more guests, and to his request makes the suitable menu.

              Trading floor responsible (TRF). The trading floor responsible accomplishes the direct connection between the guest and the waiter. The TRF welcomes the guests and informs them of the possibilities of the establishment. Providing the clients decide to stay, he moves among them, giving them the opportunity to chose the place they wish, or moves in front of them, if he is the one to chose the suitable seats for them. After the guests were accommodated he offers them the menu and helps them to make their choice. Meanwhile he may talk with the clients of the quality of dishes and beverages, the level of serving and for their impressions of the establishment. He accepts the guests gratitude and recommendations.


              The responsible of the trading floor should keep for preliminary preparation, the type and the readiness of the premise and to provide good servicing. He inspects the waiters readiness for work and gives preliminary instructions. The responsible of the trading floor helps the waiters by taking immediate part in the serving of courses and beverages, which require high qualification.

              Waiter. The waiter is the main figure in the trading hall. He participates in almost all stages of serving welcoming, accommodating and seeing off the guest, serving and cleaning up the table. The quality of serving depends to a greater extent on the waiter.

              There are several waiter categories: foreman waiter, waiter, trainee waiter, and errand-boy. They are distinguished from one another by the degree of their qualification and by their participation in overall process of serving.

              The Foreman waiter has the highest qualification. He leads a team of waiters (2 4 waiters) in a team form of serving.

              The trainee waiter is a beginner in the profession with or without completed education. He works in order to obtain practical skills in serving. The trainee waiter is involved in the process of serving and attendance, or serves by himself under the supervision of the waiter, or the foreman.

              The errand boy runs only auxiliary functions during the process of catering, by preparing the stock, laying the tables, taking away the used utensils and dishes, etc.

              Individual qualities such as appearance, professional training, language proficiency, attainments, behaviour before the guests, the colleagues, the society, etc. are of significant importance for the waiters work.

              Appearance. The waiter should have an aesthetic appearance, should wear clean and ironed uniform, maintain very good personal hygiene and be moderate with the use of cosmetics. These requirements are especially precise for the staff in the luxurious and extra category establishments, in entertainment establishments, bars, etc.

              Professional training. The waiter has to be acquainted with the entire production and trading basis of the catering establishment, the refurbishment and the stock in the trading floors, and to be able to operate with this stock. It is a must, that he should know the rules of serving of separate courses and beverages, and to put them into practice. It is necessary that he should know the organization of serving in different cases. The waiter should be informed of the technology of the dishes and desserts offered in the establishment and to have information for the quality of the different drinks. The waiter is obliged to be familiar with and to be able to use the facilities in the office and the trading floor.

              The waiters in the high category establishments have to be very well trained. In such cases they are appointed by competition. The waiters who work in catering establishments attended by foreigners, should have the relevant language proficiency.

              Attainments. Establishments are visited by clients with various interests. When communicating with them, it is desirable that the waiter could provide simple information regarding historical, geographical and other peculiarities of the settlement, where the outlet has been developed, and to have knowledge regarding its cultural and economical traditions.

              Other individual qualities. Because of the essence of his work, the waiter has to possess a series of positive individual qualities, skilfulness, vigour, agility, to be fond of his profession, to be hardworking and assiduous, to be able to work in a team. His communication with the guests, require him to be attentive, polite, caring and restrained, tactful and resourceful. It is desirable that he has good memory, in order to be able to collect more and diverse orders, to be watchful, in order to remember some peculiarities in the temper and the gastronomic preferences of regular clients of his.

              Doorman. The doorman receives and sends the guests at the entrance. His duties are as follows: to open the door, to greet and to invite the guest in the establishment; when asked, to give the proper information of the establishment with respect to assortment offered, the musical and artistic program, the serving, the opening hours, the vacant seats in the hall, etc., to direct the guests to the cloakroom, the toilet, the foyer, the trading floor (if there are more than one to the most suitable); not to allow the entering of guests who are not properly dressed or are not sober, to take care f the order when entering the establishment; upon request to call a taxi and to inform the guest when the taxi arrived, to send the guests off, to inspect the trading floor when work is over, to turn the lights off and to lock all doors.

              Cloakroom attendant. The cloakroom attendant is responsible for the cloakroom in the catering establishment. He accepts all submitted clothing and personal luggage (bags, umbrellas, etc.). He gives a counter to the guest with the number of the hanger his belongings were hung. When entering the trading floor the guests are obliged to take off their topcoats and to leave it at the cloakroom.

              Cleaner. The cleaner has indirect relation to the serving process. The cleaner cleans and keeps tidy the trading floor (when there are no guests there), the entrance and the toilet, the lavatories included.  The high-category establishments provide for a separate cleaner for the lavatories, who permanently keeps them clean.

              The big hotel and restaurant chains (Sheraton, Hilton, McDonalds, etc. and Albena AD in Bulgaria)   have their own standards, comprising their overall activity and service before all. These include both the job description and the requirements to the staff qualification profile, requirements, duties, functions, attestation, qualification maintenance and increase, etc.



              In restaurant management services are offered to guests who have come in the catering establishment for a while. They could visit it again, if they were satisfied of the service. Decisive contribution in the formation of the positive decision has the entire restaurant personnel both service operational and production. This is of particular importance for establishments of a higher category and in the cases when a large number of establishments are concentrated in one particular region. That is why each catering and entertainment establishment should:

                   To appoint staff which conforms to his own standards requirements;

                   To constantly attest his staff in various ways;

                   To keep the level of his operational staff constant in compliance with the modern requirements of the restaurant industry; to ensure positive development of this staff, through permanent training.


              Staff selection. Even with the opening of a catering or entertainment establishment it is necessary to conduct a through selection before appointing the staff. It is not chance that famous companies appoint their staff by competition (discussion, interview). The interview makes it possible to consider whether the applicant has the necessary qualification, whether he or she is suitable for this position. Selection is also made in terms of requirements to the particular staff categories in regard of their qualifications, education, length of service, other skills (Requirements for professional and language qualification for the staff in the catering and entertainment establishments). In some countries the applicant is required to provide recommendations from companies he has worked before. After the applicant is approved, he is employed. In many cases probation is a common practice, i.e. employment for a particular period, during which the worker in the establishment (mainly the restaurant) should prove his qualities, and afterwards he is employed for a longer period, or permanently. Selection is periodically carried out, especially when a certain employee has to be promoted, or his remuneration increased.

              As most felicitous method of effective staff selection in the European practice is accepted the selective interview method. Notwithstanding it provides the possibilities of personal attitude, it is a good method in tourism and restaurant management, through which it is possible to consider whether the applicant is suitable for the particular position. Two ways of selective interview are used:

               (a) individual;

               (b) before a commission (panel").

              The first way provides the applicant a calmer environment, predisposing him to express himself more completely, but the one-man interviewing makes the possibility of personal attitude when evaluating the applicant, easier.

              The second way supposes more objective decision-making. The direct manager the applicant will work for also takes part in the commission. There are three kinds of selective interviews with respect to its contents:

              ) autobiographical;
              b) stress;
              c) problem solving.

              The autobiographical interview is considered reliable. In order to obtain the necessary profile of the applicant he is interviewed on questions, concerning his past professional experience completed education, qualification, experience |duration, former work, positions occupied). Quite often the individual interview of that type is conducted in two stages: after the initial selection according to documents, an interview with the direct manager under whose direction is the vacant position. Then the two or three most successful applicants will be given the chance of an interview with the staff manager |of Nourishment Department Head). The decision is taken jointly by both managers. The panel interview, i.e. which is held before a commission, is not so common a practice.

                    Stress interview a stress situation is created to see how the applicant will react. This interview is recommended if the position requires the applicant to cope with difficult situations, which in restaurant management are for instance the interrelations between the operational staff and fussy, bad-tempered customers. It very rarely used in restaurant management. It is a practice in some restaurant chains particularly for the position of Claims department manager.

                    Problem solving interview - a hypothetic problem is posed, and afterwards the provided answer is assessed. Very rarely used in restaurant management. Nevertheless the method is suitable to check the elementary knowledge of the applicant for the relevant position; it is not very reliable to evaluate broader abilities, understandings, beliefs, personal profiles, and attitude.

              Other selection techniques, such as professional tests, written competitions, psychometric procedures, etc. are considerably more rarely used in restaurant management. Some companies and branches use various systems of criteria to select personnel. The services of specialized assessment centres are also used.

              Staff attestation. The operational staff is constantly or periodically attested. Its work is assessed in various ways. The leading restaurant companies do not tolerate any compromises in the quality of work especially that of the operational staff, being in direct contact with the guests. The attestation of the staff in restaurant management is already a practice in Bulgaria.  In the past (1979-1981) very good complex catering establishments quality management systems were elaborated (CCEQMS), which notwithstanding the fact that they were incorporated in divisions of Balkantourist System (. ., 1980) such as Sunny Beach, Albena, Stara Zagora, Plovdiv, could not gain recognition.

              Here is an example of the currently effective staff attestation system in the restaurant business in a leading tourist complex in Bulgaria.


              In the catering and entertainment establishments 1

              Attestation purposes. The purposes to be achieved with staff assessment comprise:

              - Providing feedback;
              - professional activity improvement;
              - increase of the staffs motivation;
              - determining the potential possibilities of the individual for further career;
              - Increase of remuneration;
              - Achieving commitment of the staff in company and management goals;
              - Implementation of a reliable system of stimuli and sanctions.

              Assessment criteria. Assessment is carried out according to three major criteria:

              - Extent of implementation of work duties;
              - Quality of work;
              - Individual qualities.

              The following system of attestation of the employees in the restaurant and hotel management business:

              () Personal attestation.

              Full names of the attested person:...............................................................
              Position of the attested person:....................................................................
              Unit (outlet):...............................................................................................

              The following assessment table is used, where:

              Against ach of the criteria the relevant grade is marked by a cross (+)






              Very good





              Extent of realization of professional Knowledge, skills, agility Job descriptions







              Application of the qualitative service of guests







              Work in a team, good teamwork with the colleagues






              Estimate / ability to make the right decision



              Sense of responsibility



              Presence (punctuality) at the workplace









              Attitude towards



              Loyalty to the company



              Communication skills



              Assessment for the implementation of work duties



              Assessment for the quality of work



              Assessment of the individual qualities



              TOTAL ASSESSMENT


              If any of the assessed applicants is not required to comply with a particular criterion, or he is assessed by other persons or offices, the columns of the relevant grade are left blank. Thus:

              = high priority;

              2 = moderate priority;

              1 = low priority.

              (b) Assessment criteria

              (c) Comments on assessment.

              It is obligatory to give comments on all grades below the standard

              (d) Comments of the assessed individual:.............................................................

              Full names of the assessing person:..............................................................

              Position of the assessing person:.................................................................

              Signature of the assessing person:...............................................................

              Position of the assessed person:..................................................................



              v      Greed with a smile every guest; if possible by name;

              v      Avoid conversations with colleagues in the trading floor. Service only in your region!

              v      Speak quietly in the trading floor! Control your gestures!

              v      Do not ignore the presence of the guest, when he or she enters the restaurant!

              v      Do not ask questions concerning the guests personal life!

              v      While serving your guest show him you enjoy his presence and honour him or her with a charming smile.

              v      Show permanent guests you have remembered their special preferences.

              v      Stand up, do not be loose!

              v      Do not count money and do not clink with coins in the dining floor!

              v      Report all complaints of the guests to the TFR and the manager!

              v      Do not disturb your guests to hurry up!

              v      The staff is not allowed to eat, smoke or drink in the dining floor.

              v      Always be polite, even of you disagree with your guests!

              v      Always be polite, accurate and agile!

              v      Your hands should be on the side of you body, and not in you pockets, or on your hips.

              v      Move fast, but never run in the dining floor!

              v      Enter and leave the building only through the service entrances!

              v      Actively recommend to the guests the services which are offered in the hotel and the catering establishments on the territory of the complex!

              v      Be tactful when calculating the bill and do not insist on getting a tip!

              v     Respect the guests choice notwithstanding his nationality and age!

              v      Dont be intrusive in your behaviour with the guests!

              v      Greet the guest depending on the time of his or her visit: Good day/evening. Welcome at restaurant!

              v      When offering the menu (serving the dishes, drinks, the bill) always use the expression Here you are Sir, (Madam, Miss)!

              v     After serving the main course wish Good appetite!

              v      After serving the alcoholic drinks, wish Cheers!

              v      After the guests finish with their order, ask them whether they would like anything else. If they have not ordered a dessert you may ask Would you like to have anything for dessert? I can recommend you fresh cream cake or fruit ice-cream topped with chocolate?

              v      When sending off the guests you are obliged to wish then Good day (evening)! I hope you have been pleased! Welcome again!




              Accepting guests claims.

              v      Listen to the guests complaint carefully and with interest! Watch him in the eyes! Do not interrupt him! Leave him calmly to tell his problem. Try to take your guest away in so as no other guests to be able to hear your conversation.

              v      Express your regret for the situation so created.

              v      EXCUSE YOURSELF! Put yourself at his place!

              v      Remain calm. Avoid replies which have the note of hostility.

              v      DO NOT ARGUE WITH YOUR GUEST! Express personal attitude towards the problem and make the guest understand you are serious about his complaint. Use your guests name frequently.

              v      Focus o the essence of the problem, on the fact, and not on who the guilty is. Do not blame your colleagues! Dont make unnecessary comments.

              v      Take notes. Write down key facts such as:

              v      Number of the room and name of the guest;

              v      What is the complaint about;

              v      Date, hour, your name;

              v      Tell the guest what could be done immediately. Offer ways to solve the problem.

              v      Dont promise impossible things and do not exceed your authority!

              v      Determine the approximate period within which the problem could be solved.

              v      THANK THE GUEST for informing you of the problem, as this enables us to eliminate any omission or negligence and makes it possible to show him that we are willing to react as quickly as possible to benefit him.

              v      Take immediate measures to solve the problem.

              v      Report to your direct manager right away and register the complaint in the book of complaints, whom you have reported the complaint and what actions have been taken.

              v      If it not you but any of your colleagues solved the problem, ensure in person that the guest was satisfied of the way his problem was settled down.

              v      Show that you are pleased to be of service to the guest again.

              Attitude towards conflict guests.

              Insolventguest. This happens quite rarely, but in such a situation the problem should be solved discreetly.

              v      Notify the hotel management compulsorily.

              v      Invite the guest to a calmer place and discuss the options retaining your right to use his passport (luggage) as warranty.

              v      Show attentiveness and care.

              Guest in a state of intoxication.

              v      DO NOT ARGUE with such a guest, neither try to behave with him in a quite familiar way. Alcohol has a different effect on different people. Some of the may cause huge problems, with no reason at all.

              v      Do not leave a new or inexperienced employee to handle such a situation.

              v      If possible, inform a representative of the company the guest has come with |in case of organized tourists).

              Bad-mannered guest.

              v      Never take personally and dont be upset of rude attitude or behaviour.

              v      Be impartial and act professionally.

              v      Offering solution to the problem you have the moral advantage and may make the guest clam down and change his mood.

              v      REMEMBER: Guests are sometimes nervous, if they have reason to complain, and if they are not paid the necessary attention this irritation may grow in aggression.



              Actually, hotel service includes all tourist services which a hotel, a hotel complex, or a holiday settlement offers; accommodation, feeding, sports, entertainment and other services, trade, transport, etc.

              Categorization and Classification of Accommodation Establishments and Places of accommodation.

              The differentiation of hotels and the service within them, according to the material basis, operational staff and services rendered, has begun even in ancient times. Gradually local and central authorities in certain countries started controlling the amount and the quality of service and the services offered for stay and accommodation, where the requirements to which particular establishments should conform to were later developed and offered. Nowadays almost countries where tourist business is exercised have regulatory documents which substantiate the differentiation and categorization of hotel sites.

              Hotels may be differentiated in separate groups on the grounds of various features and indices.

              The first differentiation is based on the ability of the hotel to satisfy to a particular extent the customers demand in servicing clients.

              There are two differentiated groups: basic and auxiliary establishments. The group of the basic hotel establishments comprises of: hotels, motels, holiday settlements and residencies. Auxiliary hotel establishments are all other types boarding houses, private rooms, camping-sites and others.

              The second differentiation may be made on the grounds of the period of time in the year when this establishment is open for visit. Year-round, are usually the city hotels, and seasonal the sea and mountain resorts.

              The accommodation establishments used on a seasonal basis are less effective. Factor of the low-efficiency are the constant year-round expenses for running the hotel facilities.

              The third differentiation is based on the hotel size, where indices are, on one hand the bed capacity/ seats capacity in a hotel/restaurant, and the hired staff on the other hand. These are divided into:

              Small up to 10 rooms and up to 5 persons of staff

              Middle from 10 to 50 rooms and 6 to 30 persons of staff;

              Large more than 50 rooms and more than 30 persons of staff.

              Standardization of the tourist hotel establishments is determination and regulation in terms of a regulatory document of the basic hotel types that are designed, constructed and operated in a particular country. As a standardization criterion serve the requirements regarding the case, the type and the amount of services offered to the hotel guests.

              Standardization is not creating templates, because each type provides various solutions to the architects and the owners of outlets and establishments.

              From point of view of standardization hotel establishments may be divided into stationary, mobile, and semi-mobile. The stationary hotel establishments in turn divide into year-round and seasonal, where the following types relate: hotel, motel, board, villa (residence), motel, tourist hut, tourist or holiday settlement and private rooms, where conditions for stay and accommodations of tourists have been created.

              2. Classification by functional criterion

              The organization of hotel service by functional criteria is based on the technical and technological level of the material base and labour organization of the managing and operational staff.

              It is the technical and economic features of the accommodation facilities which substantiate the differentiation from a service point of view of the following functional units:

              Receiving and directly servicing accommodation, information and sending off guests. This unit operates and is in direct relation to customers reception, accommodation, information, service to guests from reception to their room |errand boys), currency exchange, payments with clients, other additional services, etc.

              Accommodation unit it includes the accommodation of the guests in the rooms, room service, rendering of services TV set, telephone, mini bar, etc. the chambermaids and cleaners work, control of the chambermaid work by the hotel manager; wiring for sound, possibilities of viewing the discussed materials, organization of coffee breaks, cocktails, use of telephones, faxes, Internet, etc.

              Unit for offering the culinary products and serving dishes and drinks. These are the restaurants, bars (day and night), etc.

              Unit for providing additional sport, entertainment, and leisure activities. This comprises the service in water pools, fitness centres, saunas, household services, administrative services, shop network, parking plots and transportation services, laundries, etc.

              3. Classification by degree of innovation

              According to the extent of innovative technologies incorporated hotel services may be differentiated as follows:

              Technologies, which are elaborated or analyzed by the management, in order to be practically introduced.

              Incorporation of the most modern service technologies. This may be the incorporation of new reservation systems and new forms of financial reporting in hotels and particular outlets, the use of new electronic equipment, modernization of the site aimed towards increase of the hotel category and the level of the hotel quality service.

              Establishment of technologies, which are already incorporated, with the purpose of rising the quality and diversity of the basic and additional services offering. For example the hotel has established new sports and entertainment facilities. Additional training of the staff is necessary, professional qualification of workers, inspection and gradual mastering of the functions of the new facilities.

              4. Classification by accommodation facilities

              The technology of the hotel service is elated to a recognized categorization of hotels and the established accommodation facilities, set forth in the regulations and the other state regulatory acts.

              The last categorization of the tourist sites in the Republic of Bulgaria characterizes the basic hotel types and other accommodation placesq and in particular:

              The hotel is an accommodation place with general access for accommodation with at least 10 rooms of trading area, which offers basic and additional services, related to the guests stay. Hotels are differentiated according to the following indications:

              Operation period hotels are year-round and seasonal |operate only on a particular season of the year);

              Territorial location seaside, mountain, city hotels and hotels in other settlements;

              designation climatic and spa, business hotels, specialized hotels for various types of tourism rural, hunting and others;

              - A special hotel type is the apartment or studio hotel, disposing only of apartments or studios with facilities and furniture for the storage, preparation and consumption of food;

              Residence type hotels
              This is an accommodation facility of high comfort and non traditional service. It is developed according to the concept of free design and artistic architectural solutions. It is categorized in four or five stars. Such residencies are ancient buildings, buildings, which are cultural monuments, palaces, etc.

              The motel is a roadside hotel for accommodation and service of road tourists, it is located outside the settlement close to an active transport junction or a highway. Motels may also be constructed in specialized areas roadside tourist complexes.

              The villa is an independent accommodation place. It is usually a massive building with just a couple of floors and disposing of at least an antechamber, a living-room, a bedroom, a nursery, a refurbished kitchen, a dining-room, and a toilet and a bathroom.

              The bungalow is an accommodation place constructed of light building structures, basically intended for seasonal exploitation, without the explicit requirement of a kitchenette and toilet and bathroom.

              Tourist holiday resort
              he tourist holiday resort is a territorially differentiated  and independent group of villas, bungalows, hotels by exception, and other accommodation facilities, with developed  complex engineering and tourist infrastructure and with a large scale of services offered sports and entertainment.

              Camping area
              The camping area is a guarded territory with infrastructure and with the necessary conditions for the stay of tourists with own or rented tent or caravan, as well as other places of accommodation, catering, and trade. The caravan is temporary stationary-mobile (wheeled) facility without the obligatory requirement of a kitchenette and bathroom and toilet.

              Family hotel (boarding house)
              The boarding house consists of premises for hotel business with suitable architectural structure, out of the residential fund of the citizens with up to 15 rooms or up to 30 beds. Boarding houses have independent bathrooms and toilets and with local or central heating. Address registration is required under the terms and procedure of hotels. The service organization is according to the family principle.

              Private rooms
              Independent rooms (up to 5 apartments of the personal residential fund of the population, located in buildings with suitable structure and location) There is a kitchen or  kitchenette, bathrooms, toilets and heating.